Obesity and Weight Management
Obesity can be defined as Maternal obesity (often including being overweight) of a woman during pregnancy and Parental obesity refers to obesity of either parent or during pregnancy. Although maternal obesity has a significant impact on maternal metabolism and offspring development. It disrupts and cause adverse outcomes like insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, fat oxidation and amino acid synthesis. Where the modification of lifestyle is an effective intervention strategy for improvement of maternal metabolism and the prevention of adverse outcomes. During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus. The most effective intervention for weight gain in underweight women is not clear. When being or becoming overweight in pregnancy increases the risk of complications for mother and fetus, including cesarean section, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. The diet modification is the most effective way to reduce weight gain and associated risks in pregnancy. A diet that has foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent the onset of gestational diabetes.
- Defects/ impairments of parental obesity
- Mental or physical effects on the fetus
- Paternal obesity effects on the fetus
- Obesity effects on the mother
- Nutrition and exercise recommendations